Dec 08 2010



The Kapok or Ceibo tree (Ceiba trichistandra), is a tropical tree native to the drier regions of Ecuador and Peru in South America.

The flowers open during the nighttime and are pollinated by bats.  Usually, the trees flower every five years and only when the tree is leafless. This generally occurs during the dry season.  Fruits and seeds from the tree contain lightweight fibers that are water-repellent.

The ancient Maya of Central America believed that a great Ceiba tree stood at the center of the earth, connecting the terrestrial world to the spirit-world above.  The long thick vines hanging down from its spreading limbs provided a connection to the heavens for the souls that ascended them.  Even today, these grand trees are regularly spared when forests are cut — it is a common event to see lone, isolated Ceiba trees proudly spreading their shady branches high above a pasture or agricultural field, a relict of the great forests that once were there.

Ceibas have had a long commercial history.  During the 1940s the fluff, or kapok, that surrounds the seeds was harvested commercially for stuffing life preservers, seat cushions, mattresses and saddles. Being lighter than cotton, buoyant and resistant to saturation by water, it made an excellent filler for life preservers.  Until the middle of the 1900’s, nearly every stuffed life preserver and upholstered automobile seat was filled with kapok fibers.  As modern materials fell more in favor, demand for kapok fluff has fallen, and the Ceiba fruits are no longer harvested commercially. This is a blessing in disguise as deforestation of these trees has greatly diminished.

The trunks have been adapted for use as canoes.  Indigenous peoples traditionally prized the Ceiba for constructing enormous dugout canoes out of the tree’s large and cylindrical trunk.  The construction process normally takes months to complete, and may involve over a dozen men’s labor.  For many villages nestled in the forests of the tropical lowlands, these giant canoes provide the only connection to their neighbors and the rest of the world, as they are plied on the winding waterways of the rain forest.

While the wood of Ceiba is soft and light, and thus not suitable for furniture, it has been used commercially for pulpwood and plywood.   The low desirability of the wood however, may have been the Ceiba’s saving grace and one of the reason one still sees these giant trees gracing the tropical agricultural landscape.

The seeds of Ceiba are rich in oil (20%) and protein (26%).  The edible oil can also be used for soap and lighting while the “seed-cake” leftover after pressing for oil can be used to feed livestock.


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  1. Dena

    Thanks for this info. These trees have really caught my eye from our very first day here in Ecuador.
    It’s nice to know more about them.

  2. Phil Bowman

    My wife and I retired to Ecuador and have a wonderful one hectare garden complete with many many many native Ecuadorian trees, bushes, and plants. We have what the previous owner calls a Ceibo Tree. The tree is about 20 feet tall and the wood is fairly soft. The truly distinguishing feature of the tree however is that the trunk is adorned with thick spines…but the spines are not long. The tree seems to be growing more in diameter than in height. It is about 12 years old. I know Walter collected this particular tree near the coast.

    I am in the process of trying to name all of my plants and trees. Walter traveled throughout Ecuador getting plants and we have somewhere around 1,200 to 1,400 plants, trees, bushes, and flowers. Of course we don’t have 1,200 to 1,400 separate plants! Most of our garden looks like a botanical garden.

    We live north of Ibarra in northern Ecuador. The tree in the article does not seem to be the tree? Would natives have made canoes out of a trunk with spines?

    I want to label each of our plants with the Latin name, the common name, and Spanish name. We get a lot of visitors and I want to have labels so visitors know what is in our garden.

    Thank You,

    Phil Bowman

    1. Robin Slater

      Good evening Phil,

      I have to presume (correct me if I am wrong) that you are British? The ciebos in the photos were actually taken in the coastal province of Manabi, where these trees are prolific … perhaps not as much as in the past, but still characterize a great part of the coastal region. I know that the variety found on the coastal region only grown at altitudes ranging from 300 to 1500 m.a.s.l. (Ibarra runs at about 2200 m.a.s.l.). Yes, natives used these trees for a variety of uses, including carving out the trunks to fabricate canoes.

    2. jay martin

      The young Ceibi tree, those 30 years and younger have trunk spines and do not reach full height until in later years, earlier growth is often in girth and root developement.

    3. Jackie Coombe

      Hi Mr Bowman,
      I’m sorry I cannot help you with your questions but I am hoping you can help me. I am working on a series of images of endangered birds and plants . The endangered parrot ,amazona autumnalis lilacana feeds on the ceibo trichistrandra but I can’t find any images of the flower. There are plenty of images of ceibo pentandra and I wonder if the flowers are similar.
      I suppose it is not surprising that images are in short supply as I read that the tree only flowers every five years at night in the dry season. Maybe you have seen the flowers.
      I would appreciate any information you could send me when you have time .
      Good luck with your nomenclature search. Best wishes Jackie Coombe

  3. edith

    ceibos are the most beautiful trees in my country. Manabí is the place where u will find them. for me they look like humans. if u go close to them u will feel like mother nature is amazing.

  1. World Spinner


    Here at World Spinner we are debating the same thing……

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